Here's a useful art-history website, focussed on Bichon, and relevant to our smaller Poodles: The Bichon Frisé in art.
Criteria for determining the inclusion of a work depicting ancestor-candidates of our curly-kids is based on the appearance of the dog as well as what it is engaged in doing. Iconography/iconology plays a part in where or how a dog may be depicted.
For Diane de Poitiers (in relation to attempt to trace a sculpture of Diane de Poitiers in the guise of the goddess Diana with a Barbet, ed.) try your local liberry for anything on Fontainebleu or Chambord. There is a book called Royal Palaces of France (London: Hamilton, 1985), which shows many images from the palaces. It also has an extensive bibliography, which will almost certainly help.
Louis XIV's sister-in-law, known as Liselotte, Duchesse d'Orleans, had a passion for little dogs. There is a portrait of her and some dogs which are cut like Poodles, although they could be something else.
There are many, many hunt/returning from the hunt/pause in the hunt pictures of Louis XIV with also what appear to be clipped poodles. He was an avid hunter, and had many different types of dogs for different game. He also had special kennels for his favorite dogs; they were given miniature royal beds and were allowed to eat with him at the royal table--something the nobles had to be invited to do.
The Getty has a huge hunt tapestry showing the court riding after deer; the lead dogs are saluki/greyhound types, but there is a clipped dog farther back. The clipped dogs have a sighthound build. Nancy Mitford's The Sun King (London; NY: Penguin, 1994) may be the most accessible source of these images, although I don't think it has the one from the Getty in it.
Every Picture Tells a Story, a compilation of 19th century illustrators. [Query: Rolf Harris, Every Picture Tells a Story (London: Phaidon, 1989); or John Hadfield, Every Picture Tells a Story: Images of Victorian Life (London: Herbert, 1985)? Both may be useful, ed.]
RE: art prints...Lyons Ltd. Antique Prints, 2700 Hyde St., San Francisco, CA 94109 USA, tel. (415) 441-2202; (415) 749-6834, has an incredible print collection, including original Dürer, Wolgemut, Baldung, Greene, etc. They will search for you. ...tried the dog museum in St Louis?
Noted: Argyll-- "The Duke of Argyll's poodle's portrait is still in the family collections. The dog was so devoted to his master that, left behind in London, he appeared at the gates of Inveray Castle, Scotland having traveled 470 miles to find his beloved master." Hopkins, p. 285. April 1997: PHP editor received a letter from the Duke of Argyll's archivist (an erstwhile Poodle owner and admirer) stating that unfortunately the painting is not in the collection of Inveray Castle, and is unknown to the present Duke.
Noted: Carting--"Until made illegal dogs were widely used for pulling carts in Britain. Covent Garden, Billingsgate and even Smithfield were crowded on market days by dealers and costermongers delivering and collecting their loads of produce. In rural areas dogs were in common use too, especially at harvest time...Gerard painted a number of such country scenes. One very charming illustration of a Poodle drawing a dog-cart appears on the front cover of Clara Hall's Dialogues on Dogs, of which my copy is dated 1838." Price, p. 9n. Therefore, tentatively, until we lay eyes on Clara Hall's book and can confirm this: Gérard, François Pascal, Baron (1770-1837). Painting. Poodle drawing dog cart. Front cover of Clara Hall's Dialogues on Dogs (1838). Price, p. 9.
Noted: George IV--"An early English print shows the Prince Regent at his dressing table attended by his valet while his poodle is watching his toilet gravely." Hopkins, p. 286. (NB: if this is "Prinny", very likely to be satirical cartoon.) "En 1811 le Prince Régent, le future Roi Georges V [sic: George IV], installe son caniche à la Cour d'Angleterre." Jeancourt-Galignani, p. 185.
Noted: "...Hogarth [painted Poodles] as a companion of ladies of rank..." (Price, p. 20).
Noted: London Times, 15 March 1934. "The Poodle. When did the fashion of clipping poodles begin? I have a large illustrated edition of Virgil, printed at Lyons in 1517. The illustration for the Sixth Eclogue represents the poet Virgil and his dog. The dog is a poodle clipped (so far as my untutored eye can judge) precisely like the Knight of Piperscroft. --Canon C.C. Inge, St. Giles' Vicarage, 1 Norham Gardens, Oxford."
Noted: Louis Philippe--"French print of the French king, Louis Philippe and his queen fleeing in the snow with their faithful poodle following them into exile", February 1844. Hopkins, p. 286.
Noted: Margaret of York--"Manuscript depicting an espisode in the life of Margaret of York, third wife of Charles the Bold [(1433-77) last Duke of Burgundy], large black Poodle." Price, p. 3.
Noted: Maximilian--"Painting representing family group of Maximilian of Austria and his wife and child, portrait of a shaven dog." Price, p. 3.
Noted: Misc.--"Mrs. Byron Rogers' recent publication Poodles in Particular, New York, 1951, of a painting by Frans [sic: Dirck? we've searched for Poodle in Frans' paintings & failed] Hals (1584-1666)...white Miniature Poodle[;]....various illuminated manuscripts...Mrs. L.W. Crouch mentions in her chapter on the Poodle in Robert Leighton's The New Book of the Dog, 1907 [;]....Houdon [bronze; query is this the andiron listed here?], p. 41, The Book of the Dog (Nicholson & Watson) 1948[;]...Meissen stopper[;]...[and]...snuff box[;]....enamel on Louis XIV gold patch box[;]....on fan prancing near feet of...George III [sic? George IV?] and his family[;].....Ben Marshall...as Water Dog, and by Samuel Alken also in this category[;].....Napoleonic silver as a sugar castor[;]...ormolu to adorn clocks, to guard inkwells and paper weights of the Empire period[;]....Rockingham porcelain[;] ...Staffordshire potteries[;]....jug in St. Cloud ware[;]....thumb-and-finger grip on a Regency fob seal[;] while a Regency top-coat was named after him[;] as was a Bond Street lounger!" Price, pp. 19-20, chapter II, "The Poodle in Early Art and Literature" by Gerald Massey.
Noted: Sancho, rescued from the battlefield of Salamanca (June 1812) by the Duke of Worcester, portrait mentioned in Hopkins (p. 283; good looking white Poodle); Youatt states that a portrait of this dog, which belonged to the Marquis of Worcester, is familar to many readers (The Dog (London, 1886) p. 49). Paul-Marc Henry states, in Poodlestan: A Poodle's Eye View of History (NY: Reynal, 1965), p. 34, that Sancho was immortalized in a portrait painted of Charlotte of Wales, one of his great admirers. Correction: see Clara Bowring and Alida Monro, The Popular Poodle (NY: Macmillan, 1962), p. 21: "...had been painted for the Princess Charlotte of Wales, who had known and greatly admired this faithful Poodle. Sancho is a white Poodle with brown ears."
Henry's switch of "for" by "of" led us on a wild-goose chase through the National Portrait Gallery in London; however much Charlotte of Wales (George IV's daughter) may have admired Sancho, the only portrait of her with a dog appears to be a miniature by Charlotte Jones in the Royal Collection, dated 1807 (before Sancho's time in England), and inscribed "The Gift of Her Royal Highness Princess Charlotte 1807 to Martha Udny Painted by Miss Jones. The Dog is a Portrait of my favorite Lioni." Charlotte of Wales is standing with a small white Bichon-lookalike who is standing on a crimson and gold cushion. In relation to the "familiar [to Youatt's readers]" portrait, perhaps the same print mentioned by Hopkins "showing him to have been a handsome large white dog," (p. 283), this may be a print called Hyde Park, which shows "Lord Worcester with his Poodle, Sancho, whom he adopted at the battle of Salamanca in 1812. This faithful Poodle had been found lying on the grave of his master, a Lieutenant in the defeated French army. this story of devotion proved to be extremely popular and another print was issued showing the dog lying upon his master's grave." Eileen Geeson, The Complete Standard Poodle (NY: Howell, 1998), p. 13.
Mad. Jeancourt-Galignani, Les Caniches et leur élevage (Paris: Crepin-Leblond, 1958; first published in 1937): chapter "Le caniche dans l'art", pp. 181-7, contains a list of images only a few of which are described above (but we have quite a few she doesn't mention!). This is a rich source, which we hope to incorporate; if any reader has the time and ergs, please volunteer! Here's a rough and abbreviated translation of her list, and the editor's notes are within (n):
Lion-clipped dogs, bigger than Bichons, offered by Caesar to Cleopatra (69-30 BC), appear in Roman frescoes. Barbets figure on escutcheons (écus) of numerous noble families in the Middle Ages. Cathedral Saint-Sauveur, Aix-en-Provence, built 11th/12th centuries, contains statue of St. Martin accompanied by a caniche (see Hopkins, p. 21). In Burgundy, in Romanesque churches, columns, sculptures symbolizing virtues and vices, caniches included (doubtless symbol of fidelity). Amiens Cathedral... (see anon. above).
15th century, fresco by Benozzo Gozzoli (1420-98; Benozzo di Lese), Chapel of the Medicis in Florence, caniche in the procession of the three wise kings. ...Pinturrichio... (see above). Image of caniche, faithful to the death, on the right hand panel of a tryptich of van der Weyden (ca 1400-64), Les Sacraments (The Seven Sacraments, in Antwerp Museum? ed.) Durer, in one (sic!) of his etchings, represents a caniche. Wood engravings in this same era, show Pont-Neuf with boutiques of bird-fanciers, dog-clippers (groomers), fruit sellers, etc., insinuating--among the legs of the jugglers/mountebanks, etc. (bateleurs), tooth-pullers, people playing "cup and ball" (joueurs de Bilboquets)--caniches.
English picture, 1529, shows passage of summer, Ceres...white Poodle. 16th century, Museum of Florence, caniches in tapestry from the French school (par R. Galleria Uffizi). Similarly, Flemish tapestry, "Le Paradis Terrestre" (N. de Bruyn). Hon. Lady Ionides [London; Nellie Ionidies, Vulcan Champagne, with Shirley Walne?] has the most important collection of poodle objects...ivories...bronzes...porcelains...[wonder if there's a catalogue of this somewhere; what happened to the collection?].
17th century, numerous Flemish-school images of caniche... ...Dirck Hals (see above)... Pieter Lastmann (1583-1653), Rembrant's teacher, placed, at the feet of Jesus, a spaniel and a lion-clipped caniche, and I am told that Rembrandt in a picture representing a view of Paris, street dog--a caniche--in foreground (we can do better with Rembrandt--see above! ed.) Van Ostade ... (Adriaen van Ostade, 1610-85; pupil of Frans Hals, genre painter), painting "Peasant Interior with Skaters" (? ed.) at the Museum of Amsterdam shows caniche in foreground. Van Elst (1613-1670) in large official painting (Captain Bisher and Lieut. Blöem), large bi-coloured caniche. Woenix (Holland, 17th century), Huet, and Oudry (see above) have left numerous works representing the caniche, hunting birds, etc. Wolfang Killian (German, of the same century), feeble old man, and his faithful caniche, on a stool... English artists, Stern painted a white caniche, Gervase Markan (sic) painted (sic? see headpiece for Poodle History Project). Jan Stein... In the engravings of d'Israel Silvestre, scenes of departure for hunting, caniche in foreground.
18th century, vogue for caniche went into a brief eclipse. Great ladies of the court, each had Bichon. Nevertheless, Louis XV owned a caniche... Beginning of the XIII (sic? XVIII?) century, Museum of Amsterdam, faience butter-dish, Delft, cover: two seated caniches. 18th century, in Belgium, attributed to Houdon, one a cat, the other a caniche (query: Hopkins, p. 24?; see above?) Style of Louis XVI, pair of andirons, bronze (resembling certain Saxe porcelain image)... End of the 18th century, caniche, again in fashion, found in porcelain Saxe statuettes, Sèvres...blue and white...etc. Carl Vernet, "The dance of the disorderly (licentious) dogs", naturally caniche among his "artists"; two of his pictures "Le Maréchal-ferrant", in France; "le Maréchal-Ferrant", in England; in the two, a cavalier approaches a forge, English version depicts a fox terrier, French version, a caniche.
With the Empire, fashion of caniche underwent a revival. Caniche: theme of numerous artists in 19th century. 1871 [query: 1771? if in chronological order, this would be out of place], Bretherton, picture of groomer (toiletteur) of caniche in France. 1774, Kitchimgam painted "The beggar and his dog". Foré, English, left us the portrait of a very small caniche. Wolf, native of Munich, illustrated the adventures of caniche Négro. A large picture representing the departure of the family of John Bull at Boulogne, near the crowd, a lion-clipped caniche. In 1811, the Prince Regent, the future George V, installed his caniche at the English court (ed: impossible; either Prinny, the future George IV, who owned a Poodle, and who became Prince Regent in 1811, installed his Poodle, or George V, crowned king of England in June 1911, installed his Poodle; we're betting on Prinny). In 1812, Napoleon was received by a queen (query: which?) with a caniche at his feet. A portrait of the Duchesse d'Angoulême walking in the snow on the arm of Louis XVIII, a clipped caniche following along (query: is this the same picture noted by Hopkins, see "Noted: Louis--" above). Job, at end of 19th century drew scene of Le Maréchal Lannes decorating Moustache on the eve of the Battle of Austerlitz (see Hopkins, p. 280). ...Challon...(see above). Boilly, who excelled in genre scenes, painted a caniche seated on knees, groomed by second person... Bradley also depicted groomers on "les quais". Adlin painted a French Poodle (caniche)--beautifully groomed--in conflict with a British bulldog. Epinal represented caniche... Adolphe Roehn showed the reciprocal love between a blind person and his caniche [we've tracked down one Roehn image; see above]. Daumier (1808-1879), Crafty, Toulouse Lautrec, Louise Abbema, caniches (street dogs)... Gavarni, du Charivari, in realistic scenes, caniche...blind people's dogs. Gustave Doré (1832-83) illustrated fable of La Fontaine: "Le chien portant au cou le dîner de son maître". Graillon, woodcut, "Troupe de Bohémiens" with caniche, in Dieppe Museum. De Schill, "Les Caniches de Nanterre", street dogs.
Notes from Rowland Johns, ed. Our Friend the Poodle (London: Methuen, 1948), pp 17-26 (Ch. III, "The artists tell us the truth"): "Lady with the unicorn" tapestry at Cluny, ca 1510, clipped Poodle; author was invited to see Basil Ionides' collection of prints, on which the author says he based this chapter: Allegorical engraving after Raphael, 1615, presumed to be Roman goddess Aurora gazing into blinding rays of sun, at her feet stands Mini. Set of French engravings descriptive of days of James I (1603-25), entitled "The Five Senses", based upon tapestry designs of early Stuart period, in one, a clipped Poodle is prominent in foreground. Many engravings 1770-1800 depicting Poodles of various sizes, one showing parti-coloured Barbet, hand-coloured, head markings and dark brown saddle. Poodles popular subjects of French and English satiric caricaturists. French images of people who clipped and trimmed dogs of Paris before and after the Revolution; coloured print "Tendreuses des Chiens" showing five Poodles with two market women, in aprons, sitting under large umbrellas, trimming Poodles as they wait for custom on pavement beside Seine. Several other pictures of men and women engaged in this calling, alfresco, 18th century Paris. French sausage-maker looking hopefully at a Poodle standing near his cooking stove; man with Poodle and several other dogs on leashes is labeled "The Flea Merchant"; skit on knight-errantry shows two Poodles about to emulate their horsed masters by engaging in conflict. French coloured print of this period showing brown, clipped Poodles being used for duck-shooting. Early years of the 19th century, coloured prints of "The Cockney Sportsman" which show Poodles being used for duck-shooting and rabbit-shooting. Common practice for political cartoonists of the period to include Poodles which sometimes would appear to represent prominent politicians of those days. Print engraved after painting by Henry Bunbury, the English cartoonist, printed 1803 by Brown of Pall Mall, London, portrays an itinerant family of entertainers taking the road in Savoy, carrying their musical instruments and being led along by an enormous performing bear straining at his chain to keep up with a Poodle who gaily leads the way in "French (or Lion) clip." Later cartoon of performer, standing on table, who apparently combines Shakespearian recitals with displays of canine antics by clipped Poodles in attendance. Print, Paris ca 1820, on river embankment, male barber displays notice that he clips dogs, and cures maladies of dogs, cats, and parrots and also "cures dogs and their wives." After Peninsula War, print issued entitled Hyde Park, showing Lord Worcester walking with Poodle named Sancho, whom he adopted at the battle of Salamanca (1812); another print, with the head of the Poodle showing coloured markings, shows the dog devotedly lying on his master's grave on battleground. French print depicting entry into Algiers (1830), Poodle named Mitraille proudly leads cavalry through the main gateway into conquered stronghold of pirates and slave-traders. English print of Prince Regent in his dressing-room, attended by valet, with Poodle also on the alert. Engraving dated 1829 shows Poodles being used for fowling in India [can't wait to see that one! ed]. Coloured print of Louis Phillipe fleeing through the snow with his wife from fury of the Republicans, accompanied by Poodle. Landseer, in 1860's, at age 19 [sic], painted Taillageur, a Poodle with coloured head-markings, and this picture was engraved for sale in the United States. German comic strip of early 19th century contains Poodle. Print of corded Poodle clipped on hindquarters and legs. Reference to Roundhead pamphlet re Prince Rupert's Boy. Sportsman's Cabinet (1803), illustration of Water Dog. Youatt (1845) drew white dog with dark ears and body patches.
Noted: "White and black Poodles". Engraving. Two (moyen) Poodles, one white (lying), one black (sitting) on a step, "1/10 nat. size", p. 547 (running head: "Domestic Dogs"; verso, p. 548, running head: "Carnivores" and image of "Siberian Wild Dog"; typography and printing technology appears to be English 1870-90.
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